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Oxen were used for a variety of tasks on the farm before the 1840s. In the latter years of the nineteenth century, horses began to replace oxen. Many farmers in western Pennsylvania, however, continued to use oxen. The Graham family kept oxen on the farm to use for harvesting grain and for other tasks. James Graham writes in a letter dated Oct. 7th, 1864, that his father has sold his oxen, perhaps so that he can buy horses. Sources: "The Historical and Genealogical Society: Graham Collection. Fletcher, Whitcomb W. Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1955. Print. Gates, Paul W., The Impact of the Civil War: Agriculture and the Civil War. Ed. Nevins, Allan. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc, 1965. Print.
Vince's Agricultural Project, Vol. II
Yokes, 19th century, Pictorial works, Agricultural implements, United States, History, 19th century, Pictorial works.
"Oxen Yoke" (2019). Indiana, Pennsylvania in the Civil War. 303.
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The Historical and Genealogical Society of Indiana County, PA; Agriculture Project