Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Dr. Steven Jackson

Second Advisor

Mary J. Kuffner Hirt, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

David D. Chambers, Ph.D.


The purpose of this study is to investigate the organizational culture of the Pennsylvania State Police, Bureau of Liquor Control Enforcement. This organization has created a bifurcated organizational structure that has created a different type of law enforcement officer. A mixed methods approach was implemented, where a survey tool was used to create a baseline of data. This data was then used to elicit discussion during in depth interviews. Other data that was collected included a historical review of Pennsylvania Liquor Control Enforcement, which dates back to the Provincial Governor of 1710 to the present day. Additional data that was used to create a foundation for the study was gleaned from Pennsylvania Legislative Journals and media reports, which created a historical aspect of the study. Another component of the study included a brief examination of the Control States, which is a group of states that regulate the importation and sale of alcohol and malt or brewed beverages. The combination of these research methods provided a strong foundation for the study. The theoretical foundation for this study included research from Institutional School including Charles Perrow; General Systems theory and Ludwig von Bertalanffy and others including Downs, Sapienza and Sackmann. The combination of these research methods provided a strong foundation for the study. The study found that the organizational subculture exists primarily due to the organizational structure of the Pennsylvania State Police. The legislative move that placed a civilian law enforcement organization under the management of a paramilitary law enforcement organization created a “different” type of Pennsylvania State Police Officer in a dichotomous type of organizational environment. This study provides a glimpse into a model of liquor law enforcement unlike any other in existence. The combination of paramilitary and civilian organization culture is unique and warrants further research. This type of organizational subculture has been recreated in Pennsylvania law enforcement in the Gaming industry through the creation of a civilian Gaming Officer, who is managed by the Pennsylvania State Police. It appears the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is creating a similar dichotomous subculture within Gaming as it did in liquor enforcement.