Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Sarah Neusius, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Beverly Chiarulli, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

John Nass, Jr., Ph.D.


Small habitation sites (also known as hamlets and farmsteads) have been discussed frequently in Monongahela literature. While this site-type is contrasted from villages based on settlement size, architectural elements, and the treatment of space, it has been suggested that they also served a special-purpose function in subsistence-settlement patterns. This study compares archaeological data from the two site-types to explore potential special-purpose functions, as revealing them would not only provide a more nuanced view of Monongahela subsistence-settlement patterns, but would also verify small habitation sites as a distinct site-type. The results not only indicate a lack of evidence for a special-purpose function among the small habitation sites (which may simply represent a continued settlement pattern from earlier periods), but reveal heterogeneity between and among both site-types in terms of resource strategies. Our categorical designations used to define settlements should perhaps be reconsidered, as they do not sufficiently account for such variability.