Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ded)


Professional Studies in Education

First Advisor

Robert E. Millward, Ed.D.

Second Advisor

George R. Bieger, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Jennifer V. Rotigel, D.Ed.


The affective domain represents a set of learning objectives that are difficult to assess and instruct. Affective behaviors consist of different attributes such as interpersonal relationships, professionalism, trust, empathy, and integrity to name a few. This study surveyed athletic training clinical instructors' perception of the importance of using affective behaviors in a clinical setting. Using data from survey respondents, this study found that clinical instructors have a favorable and positive perception regarding the use of affective behaviors in athletic training clinical education programs. The Chi-Square analysis showed that all groups had a positive perception of the use of affective feedback techniques regardless of gender, experience, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) affiliation or job setting. Other dependent variables consisting of the use of verbal feedback, peer debriefing session, or summative or formative feedback did not produce any significant differences in perceptions regarding the importance of affective strategies. To determine the clinical instructors' perception of the importance of affective behaviors in clinical education and the practice of these behaviors, T-Tests and one-way analysis of variances (ANOVA) were performed. The results indicated that all groups had positive perceptions of the use of affective behaviors regardless of gender, years of experience as certified athletic trainers or clinical instructors, NCAA affiliation or job setting. The respondents were also asked to rank professional values they felt were most important in the clinical setting. Both cognitive and affective behaviors were equally represented in the top rankings indicating clinical instructors felt both types of behaviors were important in athletic training clinical education. The results of this study will enable athletic training clinical educators to further develop and use affective behaviors in clinical education sessions.