Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Geography and Regional Planning

First Advisor

Brian Okey, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Donald Buckwalter, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Victor Garcia, Ph.D.


Pennsylvania is home to hundreds of coal mining communities that sprang to life at the turn of the century. As mining increased in importance these towns created a lasting landscape, but as the mines closed people living in these rural, isolated, and now impoverished communities constructed social networks and developed livelihood strategies to remain in their beloved communities. This paper addresses the lives of three case study families and the activities they use within their networks to meet their overall household needs in the community of Glen Campbell. The information was gathered through in-depth interviews, genealogical reviews and participant observation.