Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Beverly Chiarulli, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Benjamin Ford, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Sarah Neusius, Ph.D.


The Susquehannocks were the dominate Native American group along the Susquehanna River during the 17th to about the 1660s. The Lower Leibhart site (1665-1675) is documented as the last village of occupation by the Susquehannocks as a fully functioning unit. During the occupation of the Lower Leibhart site, the Susquehannocks and the English in Maryland were allies on and off with treaties indicating each switch. Each ally treaty promised assistance in the war effort against the Seneca. Maryland soldiers helped construct defensive structures including bastions at the Strickler site. The bastions found were indicated by post molds in a rectangular shape. It was concluded that the English might have had portable cannons and the bastions were really mounds of earth supported by post. The geophysical survey at the Lower Leibhart site attempted to outline the palisade line and find village and defensive structures.