Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health and Physical Education

First Advisor

Richard Hsiao, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Elaine A. Blair, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Robert M. Kostelnik, Ph.D.


Research about fan motivation to watch soccer is lacking in the field of sports. The purpose of the study was to assess the differences in motivation for watching soccer between American and non-American students. This study investigated motivational factors between 500 American and 500 non-American randomly selected students at a mid-sized university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were asked to complete the online survey instrument (a modified version of the Sport Fan Motivation Scale; SFMS; Wann, 1995) in order to determine motivations for watching soccer. Results indicated that non-American students (M = 1.89, SD = 0.31) watch soccer more than American students (M = 1.75, SD = 0.44) and there were significant differences (p = .033). The primary motivational factor that influenced both groups to watch soccer was entertainment. For future study, increased number of participants with a variety of nationalities will be necessary to discover more significant results.