Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Benjamin Ford, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Phillip Neusius, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Steven Schroeder, Ph.D.


To date, no typology of Pennsylvania forts has been completed so this research fills a void in the archaeological and historical records. Research was conducted to develop a typology of mid to late 18th century forts dating from the French and Indian War to the Revolutionary War. The typology attributes include: fort name; conflict; plan and layout; who commissioned the fort; who built the fort; fort group; square footage; year of construction; year of abandonment; number of years abandoned; purpose for construction; location; distance to water; distance to military roads; distance to Native American pathways; fort reuse; construction materials; date the fort was last seen; archeological investigations; and Vauban inspiration. The typology was applied to forts located throughout North America. This study additionally examined the variability in 18th century society and technology as represented in the fortification methods and styles of the French, British and American Empires.