Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Political Science

First Advisor

Rachel Sternfeld, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Sarah Wheeler, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Karen Scarton, Ph.D.


Many scholars have enthusiastically looked for ways to improve informal housing conditions in Cairo, Egypt. Some of them called for policy upgrading, architectural improvements, budget allocation, and sustainable development. By connecting different sectors together to serve the public interest, the birth of new solutions will develop. This paper looks at participatory approach, social architecture, urban planning, sustainable design, and land tenure to show that the overlapping of those fields may lead to a change and may actually develop different social outcomes. The criteria suggested in chapter three may not only contribute to Cairo, but to the rest of the developing countries.