Erin K. Haugh

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ded)


Educational and School Psychology

First Advisor

Mark McGowan, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Lynanne Black, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Timothy Runge, Ph.D.

Fourth Advisor

Mark J. Staszkiewicz, Ed.D.


The purpose of this study was to examine the role orthographic coding might play in distinguishing between membership in groups of language-based disability types. The sample consisted of 36 second and third-grade subjects who were administered the PAL-II Receptive Coding and Word Choice Accuracy subtest as a measure of orthographic coding ability. Disability groups included No Disability, Reading SLD, and Speech or Language Impairment. Results showed that orthographic coding ability was correlated with measures of early literacy skills in both the second and third grade samples. With both functions included, results of the Wilks-Lambda reveal a significant relationship between predictors and groups. Results show that Orthographic Coding Ability adds to the ability to differentiate between the groups. Results revealed that 89.5% percent of membership in the No Disability group was correctly predicted by the model.