Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

William Chadwick

Second Advisor

Sudeshna Ghosh

Third Advisor

Benjamin Ford


This thesis explores the stone structures in Harrat Al-Harrah of northern Saudi Arabia. The goal of the research was to recognize the locational patterns for the circular structures, which is one type of stone structure, based on three quantifiable environmental attributes: elevation, slope, and distance to water resources. This study involved creating Geographic Information System (GIS) data by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. The GIS data contained thousands of stone structure locations and water resource features in two zones of central Harrat Al-Harrah (225 square miles and 81 square miles total). Also, the probability modeling methodology was conducted to develop the locational pattern of circular structures in one zone and a second zone to test the pattern of Harrat Al-Harrah, examining the correlative relationship between the circular locations and the three environmental factors. The results showed three areas of locational suitability in the two zones: low, moderate, and high suitability. When testing the locational pattern in the first zone, where the pattern developed, the result showed a valid pattern, and that the distance to water resources is the most crucial factor. However, when testing the pattern in the second zone, the result showed an invalid pattern. The significance of this research lies in the contribution of creating archaeological GIS data and recognizing initial locational patterns of circular stone structures in Harrat Al-Harrah that have never been studied before and difficult to access.