Jawad Golzar

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Gian S. Pagnucci

Second Advisor

Gloria Park

Third Advisor

Curtis Porter


This study aimed to explore academic writing instructors’ challenges along the process of technology integration in Afghan public universities; examine instructors’ current technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK); the relationships between TPACK and instructors’ teaching experience and their educational levels. The researcher used TPACK framework proposed by Koehler & Mishra (2006) in this research. The study revealed that the instructors had pretty high level of TPACK (Mean=4.08), but average level of Technological knowledge (Mean=3.78). The study then examined two null hypotheses: a. there is no relationship between instructors’ TPACK and years of teaching experience. b. there is no connection between the teachers’ TPACK and their educational levels. Therefore, a t-test was run to examine the first hypothesis and it showed that there was no relationship between TPACK and years of teaching experience. Furthermore, a one-way ANOVA was operated to study the second null hypothesis, it also revealed that there was no connection between the teachers’ TPACK and their educational levels. The results were not in harmony with the findings in other studies. There might be two possible reasons for such inconsistency: small size of participants in the study and large extent of contextual barriers that hindered integrating technology based on what teachers learned during their educational programs and teaching experiences. Moreover, instructors noted daunting challenges to technology integration in their classrooms. At the end, a process-model was proposed based on the findings of the study and further discussion of the results. The study also suggested several implications and raised inquires for further research.