Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Lilia P. Savova

Second Advisor

Bennett A. Rafoth

Third Advisor

Michele L. Petrucci


This dissertation explores the development of the Academic Literacies of multilingual learners in the multicultural settings of a Toronto College. More specifically, it addresses teacher reported experiences and reported perceptions of developing the Academic Literacies of multilingual learners. It uses a unified conceptual framework encompassing established aspects of ESL materials and methodology, namely, teacher roles, learner roles, materials’ roles, activities’ roles, and academic literacies development roles to establish essential differences between the plural-noun Academic Literacies and other forms of single-noun literacy approaches. It applies this theoretical and methodological frame to the analysis of its three kinds of data sets: One, an online email Survey; Two, oral face-to-face Interviews; and, Three, written Reflections. It uses an online Qualtrics survey to establish teacher perceptions of the development of multilingual learners’ Academic Literacies. Then, it uses face-to-face interviews to examine teacher reported experiences in developing multilingual learners’ Academic Literacies. Finally, post-interviews, it analyzes its participants’ reported perceptions of developing the Academic Literacies of multilingual learners. Its findings establish the presence of consistent teacher attempts at incorporating learner backgrounds, fluency levels, and individual goals in creating a learner-centered and inclusive literacy education in an academic atmosphere that honors students’ real-life aspirations.