Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ded)


Educational and School Psychology

First Advisor

Courtney McLaughlin

Second Advisor

Lynanne Black

Third Advisor

Christoph Maier

Fourth Advisor

Joseph F. Kovaleski


The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference for English Language Learners (ELLs) and native English speakers on the rate of improvement (ROI) of oral reading fluency (ORF). Two-hundred and ninety-four first, second, and third-grade students (226 ELLs and 68 native English speakers) from an international school in China were screened using aimswebPlus oral reading fluency passages throughout the 2018-2019 school year. Fall-to-spring ROI was used to measure student growth throughout the year. Results indicated that students in Grade 3 have a significantly lower ROI than students in Grades 1 or 2. A significant difference was also found by language status when Grades 1 and 2 were combined with native English speakers having a higher ROI than ELLs. When controlling for the fall ORF score, no difference was found by language status for students when data were disaggregated by Grade 1, 2, or 3