Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

John A. Anderson, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Valerie J. Gunter, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Alex Heckert, Ph.D.


This research examines whether policing has adapted to assume homeland security terrorism preparedness responsibilities since the 2001 terrorist attacks on the U.S. and examines the factors that influenced police agencies to adopt or not adopt homeland security strategies. The objectives of this study involve identifying components of terrorism preparedness initiatives that directly relate to law enforcement, determining how local law enforcement agencies implement these initiatives, and assessing the internal and external factors that influenced these changes. This study provides information exploring the initiatives that law enforcement agencies have undertaken to increase security and prevent terrorist acts within their communities. Using an open systems model, this research provides a structural-functional analysis to assist in understanding changes a municipal law enforcement agency undergoes. The study administered a survey to municipal law enforcement agencies in Pennsylvania. The study used factor analysis and ordinary least squares regression to quantitatively evaluate the data collected. The results show that several factors significantly influence the implementation of homeland security terrorism preparedness efforts of municipal law enforcement agencies. Because there is a lack of information as to how terrorism preparedness as part of homeland security corresponds with the function of policing, this research examines whether municipal police have adopted this new style of policing and the factors that influence them to assume these efforts.