Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Patrick Bizzaro, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Jeannine M. Fontaine, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Resa Crane Bizzaro, Ph.D.

Fourth Advisor

Sharon K. Deckert, Ph.D.


Literacy is one of the most fundamental processes in the life of people. It is complex enough when people develop these processes in their first language, and the nature of the task becomes even more challenging when it is developed with students in a second language within the context of a bilingual setting. Bilingual education has been based on theories and research stemming from fields such as linguistics, psychology, first and second language acquisition. The views of second language acquisition have dominated the scope of research in terms of both linguistic and cognitive aspects. However, the study of second language acquisition in current times requires a change of paradigm that involves the social and cultural views of language and literacy learning. These views include the conception of second language learners whose literacy processes are based on the ideas of identity, subjectivity, and agency.