Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ded)


Educational and School Psychology

First Advisor

Mark R. McGowan, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Lynanne Black, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Timothy J. Runge, Ph.D.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the connections between supervision and school psychologists' self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 206 practicing school psychologists (168 females, 38 males). Participants completed a demographic survey and a measure of self-efficacy, Huber Scale of Self-Efficacy for School Psychologists. Among participants in the study, professional supervision was not as accessible to school psychologists as administrative supervision. Of those who receive professional supervision, frequency had a minimal influence on counseling and research self-efficacy. Professional experience also emerged as a predictor of self-efficacy, although the relationship was relatively small. Additional factors such as caseload, job diversity, and geographic work setting were inconclusive regarding their relationship with self-efficacy. Overall, the sample was experienced and demonstrated high levels of self-efficacy. The restricted range of experience and levels of self-efficacy was a limitation of the study. Trends in the data suggested that professional supervision is still not engaged in as frequently as administrative supervision. With limited opportunities to develop professional competencies within the daily work environment, school psychologists must reach out to other opportunities for enrichment. Future investigations should focus on the influence of professional development opportunities including supervision on self-efficacy among school psychologists with varying levels of experience.