Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ded)


Professional Studies in Education

First Advisor

George Bieger, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Anne Creany, Ed.D.

Third Advisor

Kelli Paquette, Ed.D.


With the push for adequate yearly progress (AYP), educators must find cost-effective strategies improve learning for all students. Tutoring has been found to be an effective strategy for improving students' learning. However, little research has been done to determine the influence of pre-service teachers as tutors. This quantitative, experimental study compared reading assessment scores of students in first-and second-grade who were tutored in reading with students who were not tutored in reading. The study also analyzed student attitudes about reading. The research study included seventeen first-grade students and sixteen second-grade students. The students in this study included students whose assessment scores were below grade level benchmarks on reading assessments. The students in the experimental group were tutored two days a week for two college semesters. The tutors were pre-service teachers from a local University. The pre-service teachers were taking courses to obtain a minor in reading. Overall, the results of this study found that there is a positive correlation between reading attitude and reading achievement. The study also found that both students who were tutored and those who were not tutored made statistically significant gains. However, when comparing the assessment scores of students who were tutored with students were not tutored, the students who received one-on-one tutoring from pre-service teachers out performed students who were not tutored on three of the five assessments. The students who were tutored showed greater gains on the running record assessment, the Phonological Awareness Skills Test, and the Phonics Inventory. However, students who were tutored did not show an improvement in their attitude about reading after receiving tutoring. Overall, the use of pre-service teachers as tutors is an effective practice for improving student learning.