Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Randy L. Martin, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Lynda Federoff, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Jamie Martin, Ph.D.

Fourth Advisor

Jennifer Gossett, Ph.D.


This qualitative study explores self development subsequent to childhood victimization. Supported by Integral Theory’s (Wilber, 1999) conceptualization of the self-system, 15 licensed clinicians were interviewed via telephone to collect data regarding the developmental processes and characteristic qualities of harmful and nonharmful victims, the two general outcomes addressed by the cycle of violence (COV) hypothesis. Multiple phases of analysis led to the identification of developmental processes and characteristic qualities for three victim groups based on relative harmfulness: nonharmful victims; moderately or self harmful victims; and globally harmful victims. Findings in relation to each of the victim groups were also used to create general propositions of an integral victimology. Along with their relative placement on a continuum of risk for completing the COV, individuals within the three identified victim groups can also be conceptualized as being spiritual attuned or misattuned in relation to healthy and normative development.