Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Thomas A. Nowak, Ph. D.

Second Advisor

Susan Boser, Ph. D.

Third Advisor

D. Alex Heckert, Ph.D.


This quantitative, correlational study investigated the effectiveness of cross-training as a strategy for reducing burnout and improving job satisfaction among public safety personnel. The research used ANOVA to compare burnout and job satisfaction among police, fire, and emergency medical service (EMS) personnel receiving cross-training with public safety personnel trained only in their functional task specialty. The investigation included assessing the effect of the demographic variables of public safety function, age, gender, years or education, years of experience, marital status and race on burnout and job satisfaction among cross-trained public safety personnel. The sample population for the study consisted of active duty public safety personnel employed on a full-time basis for more than a year in a public safety department in cities with a population of 75,000 or less. The data gathering instrument used in the study was a modified form of the Satisfaction Questionnaire developed by Stamps (1997), which was assessed for reliability and validity in a pilot test. The findings indicated that cross-training produces a statistically significant difference in the level of burnout among public safety personnel, with cross-trained personnel reporting lower incidence of burnout symptoms. The findings also indicated that cross-training increases job satisfaction among cross-trained public safety personnel. The findings support the conclusion that cross-training of public safety personnel can reduce burnout and improve job satisfaction.