Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ded)


Professional Studies in Education

First Advisor

Jennifer V. Rotigel, Ed.D.

Second Advisor

George R. Bieger, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

DeAnna M. Laverick, Ed.D.


This quantitative study examined the variables of the formative reading assessments Classroom Diagnostic Tools and STAR to determine the predictive value each had on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment with an added determinate of whether the combined use of the CDT and STAR assessments yielded an additional benefit. The Shingo System for Continuous Improvement, a business theory of fundamental improvement used with thousands of workers, managers, and top executives at hundreds of companies provided the theoretical infrastructure for this study identifying untapped potential, for avoiding superficial operational improvements in favor of process-based improvement, to increase productivity. The study sample of (N=60) was extracted from an entire sixth grade cohort of 72 students from a small rural public school district. The results of the data analysis reveal the variables of Classroom Diagnostic Tools and STAR as two formative reading assessments correlating significantly with the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment and serving as predictor variables useful for educators seeking to identify student performance strengths and needs in order to provide timely instructional interventions and curriculum alterations. In a time of budget constraints public schools are looking for efficiency for every dollar spent and quality information to aid in the decision-making process might be invaluable. Information gained from this study might in the minimum spur a conversation among educators and in the maximum direct student learning for increased performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment.