Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Criminology and Criminal Justice

First Advisor

Jamie S. Martin, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Kathleen J. Hanrahan, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

John A. Lewis, Ph.D.

Fourth Advisor

Alida V. Merlo, Ph.D.


The restorative justice movement in Pennsylvania continues to be defined following the passing of the Juvenile Act in 1995. As implementation strategies are discussed, and policies altered, the need to examine well established restorative programs becomes important. Very few restorative programs in the Commonwealth, and across the country, can claim twenty years of existence and success. The Center for Community Peacemaking (CCP) in Lancaster, Pennsylvania has implemented and sustained a restorative victim offender conferencing (VOC) program that has been serving the local community for two decades. This dissertation examined the organizational and communal relationships that have helped produce a long-lasting model of restorative justice. Utilizing interviews of community volunteer facilitators, former program Directors, and juvenile probation officers, this study sought to develop a qualitative understanding of the pitfalls and success in program development and implementation. Results showed that development of a VOC program needs to be highly supported by both community-based, and justice-based agencies. While this can be difficult, especially when looking for avenues of funding, faith-based communities can help produce a strong volunteer facilitator base that becomes one of the links in a strong chain of restorative justice support.