Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ded)


Educational and School Psychology

First Advisor

Gurmal Rattan, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

William F. Barker, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Becky A. Knickelbein, Ph.D.

Fourth Advisor

Martin R. Friedman, Ph.D.


This study examined the utility of categorizing students with reading difficulties by fluency and error rates and the efficacy of interventions proposed to remediate each type. Forty-eight students with low reading fluency in grades three through six were categorized into three dyslexic subtypes based on Bakker’s (1992, 1994)Balance Model of Reading. Thirty-five participants were identified as M-type dyslexics, who display slow reading with many errors. Thirteen participants were identified as P-type dyslexics, slow reading with few errors. No L-type dyslexics (fast reading with many errors) were identified. Each grade-level group received one of two treatments (Hemisphere Specific Stimulation and repeated partner reading counterbalanced for six weeks. Hemisphere Specific Stimulation (HSS) used a tactile training box to stimulate the targeted hemisphere as indicated in Bakker’s Balance Model of Reading. The students worked in pairs, each participating as a student-examiner (placing letters in the training box) and a student-examinee (manipulating letters with a specified hand to stimulate the opposite hemisphere). The second treatment group received repeated partner reading. Each participant was assessed with AIMSWeb reading fluency (words read correct per minute), reading accuracy (percentage of words read correctly), and reading comprehension probes. The results of this study suggest that both repeated partner reading and HSS produced significant (p