Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ded)


Professional Studies in Education

First Advisor

George R. Bieger, Ph. D.

Second Advisor

James D. Hooks, Ph. D.

Third Advisor

Mark Twiest, Ph. D.


This study examined elementary school teachers’ perceptions of technology after participating in a field test, the I³ Project. The study explored and assessed how elementary teachers reported technology in terms of knowledge, attitude, and technology implementation in the classroom. The results revealed that the technology experience, the I3 Project, had a strong positive impact on the teachers’ technological literacy, their pedagogical knowledge of technology, their confidence in teaching technology, and their incorporation of technology strategies in their classrooms. The teachers described appropriate definitions of technology and what it means to be technologically literate. They characterized technologically literate people as problem-solvers. Many used technology terms as they gave examples of problem-solving approaches. They also provided detailed accounts of teaching technology using components of the I3 units or their own developed units. The data findings support the conclusion that teachers have been positively affected by their experience in the I3 Project, in terms of knowledge, attitude, and practices towards technology education. The data are supportive of the benefits of technology in the elementary curriculum. As the choice to include technology is made in more schools and classrooms, the impact on student knowledge and competency will become increasingly evident. However, this will require continued work in areas of teacher preparation and professional development.