Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Mary Jane Kuffner Hirt, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Dighton M. Fiddner, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Christina F. Jeffrey, Ph.D.


The purpose of this study is to examine both effective and non-effective leader behaviors exhibited by leaders in the U.S. Army while in combat and under enemy fire. A secondary goal is to determine whether characteristics of combat leadership are present or evident in all forms of leadership. Specifically, leader behaviors will be identified by using a stratified sample of soldiers, noncommissioned officers, and commissioned officers, all with varying degrees of experience, years of service, among both male and female soldiers. The study proposes a hybrid research design using qualitative and quantitative measures that incorporate 2,000 soldier surveys, 8 focus groups consisting of a total of 80 soldiers, and 24 in-depth interviews (18 male, 6 female) from 8 separate groups. The results of this study will be published in the author's dissertation titled Military Leadership in Combat.