Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

John Anderson, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

D. Alex Heckert, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Dana Hysock Witham, Ph.D.


Evidence concerning the effectiveness of DVO supervision cannot subsist without understanding how probation officers supervise offenders and implement strategies. Little research exists on what probation officers actually do with the domestic violence offenders they supervise and this study is a first step in that process (Seiter & West, 2003). In 2000, PCADV funded by the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency (PCCD), took the lead in developing the Model for Domestic Violence Intervention and Supervision for Pennsylvania County Adult Probation and Parole Departments (Model) (PCADV, 2003). The research explores if the POs are specifically trained on DVO supervision techniques, use the knowledge obtained through training, and any barriers to effective supervision of DVOs. The conceptual framework for this study shows how the relationship between the PO and DVO is a direct function of training, awareness of the Model, and how a number of barriers either impedes or enhances the POs ability to supervise the DVO. The data was collected using survey methodology and data analysis using quantitative methods. A total of 132 probation officers from 28 Pennsylvania counties were included in the final sample. Findings from this study indicate that although the majority of the probation officers were not aware of the Model they used the techniques detailed in the Model to supervise the DVOs on their caseload. Additional findings demonstrate that gender, training focused on DVO training, specialized probation and a probation officers belief that probation reduces recidivism were statistically significant in predicting supervision techniques described in the Model.